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Fedigan LM, Zohar S. (1997) "Sex differences in mortality of Japanese macaques: twenty-one years of data from the Arashiyama west population". They get their name "snow monkey" because some live in areas where snow covers the ground for months each year – no other non-human primate is more northern-living, nor lives in a colder climate. [3] Individuals have brownish grey fur, pinkish-red faces, and short tails. [27] The female decides whether mating takes place. Births occur between March and September, after a gestation period lasting 6 months. In: Matsuzawa T, editor. Yotsumoto N. (1976) "The daily activity rhythm in a troop of wild Japanese monkey". Males have no copulatory vocalizations. Koyama N. I (1967) "On dominance rank and kinship of a wild Japanese monkey troop in Arashiyama". These matrilines may exist in a dominance hierarchy with all members of a specific group ranking over members of a lower-ranking group. Sugiura H. (2001) "Vocal exchange of coo calls in Japanese macaques". (2002) "Monkeys in the backyard: encroaching wildlife and rural communities in Japan". Younger females tend to rank higher than their older siblings. Except for humans, they are just other animals that wash them before eating their food! [67] As human prosperity has grown, macaques have lost their fear of humans and have increased their presence in both rural and urban areas, with one macaque recorded living in central Tokyo for several months. [6] The macaque has a pinkish face and posterior. Minami T. (1974) "Early mother-infant relations in Japanese monkeys". The Japanese macaque is a feature of several fairy tales, such as the tale of Momotarō and the fable about The Crab and the Monkey. Wolfe L. (1979) "Sexual maturation among members of a transported troop of Japanese macaques". [65][66], Traditional manmade threats to macaques have been slash-and-burn agriculture, use of forest woods for construction and fuel, and hunting. Nakamichi M, Kojima Y, Itoigawa N, Imakawa S, Machida S. (1995). (1991) "Mating by non-troop males among the Japanese macaques of Yakushima island". (2006) "Not only annual food abundance but also fallback food quality determines the Japanese macaque density: evidence from seasonal variations in home range size". At first, many perished in the unfamiliar habitat, which consists of arid brushland. Primates 26(4):424-35. [5] Males may also temporarily join another troop during the mating season and mate with the females. In: Taub DM, editor. Masataka N. (1989) "Motivational referents of contact calls in Japanese monkeys". This continues today throughout the works of this particular religion. Vasey PL, Foroud A, Duckworth N, Kovacovsky SD. In addition, a Japanese macaque troop contains several matrilines. [21] Nevertheless, a female will only groom a limited number of other females, even if the group expands. The observatory is an enclosed ranch-style environment and the macaques have been allowed to roam with minimal human interference. Huffman MA. [5] Infants are born with dark-brown hair. [28] Females also engage in same-sex mounting. Researchers studying this species at Koshima Island in Japan left sweet potatoes out on the beach for them to eat, then witnessed one female, named Imo (Japanese for yam or potato), washing the food off with river water rather than brushing it off as the others were doing, and later even dipping her clean food into salty sea water. [5] The southernmost population living on Yakushima Island is a subspecies of the mainland macaques, M. fuscata yakui. Males weigh on average 11.3 kg (25 lb), while females average 8.4 kg (19 lb). [37] A mother carries her infant on her belly for its first four weeks. long all the way to 2 ft. long or more. In: Kondo S, Kawai M, Ehara A, editors. Variants of the "girney" call are made in different contexts. These most likely serve to keep the troop together and strengthen social relations between females. [70] During the Edo period, numerous clasps for kimono or tobacco pouches (collectively called netsuke) were carved in the shape of macaques.[71]. These monkeys typically have long arms, long legs, and long tails. According to IUCN Red list, the Japanese macaque is common, widespread and increasing in recent years. Koganezawa M. (1974) "Food habits of Japanese monkey (, Maruhashi T. (1980) "Feeding behavior and diet of the Japanese monkey (. Takahashi H. (2002) "Changes of dominance rank, age, and tenure of wild Japanese macaque males in the Kinkazan A troop during seven years". In: Fuentes A, Wolfe LD, editors. "Catalogue of the Mammals and Birds of Burma", Jigokudani Monkey Park, Nagano: Explore the Heart of Japan, "Japanese macaques as laboratory animals", "U.S. asked to consider designating 300 primates at Oregon research center as threatened", http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/japanese_macaque/behav, "The Legendary Snow Monkeys of Texas: A brief open season on monkeys resulted in protections for them in the Lone Star State", Human Factors & activities around Jigokudani-Shigakogen Forest Park, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Japanese_macaque&oldid=990791222, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, A Japanese macaque mother grooming her young, This page was last edited on 26 November 2020, at 14:56. [44] Coos are also uttered before grooming along with "girney" calls. Winter in the Japanese Alps is harsh and snow covers the ground for a third of the year. It inhabits subtropical forests in the southern part of its range and subarctic forests in mountainous areas in the northern part of its range. Most primates live in warm tropical or subtropical climates, but these macaques are adapted to living in the cold. "Snow monkey" redirects here. [49][50] An altered misaccount of this incident is the basis for the "hundredth monkey" effect. Such behavior is likely because of hormones and females are mounted more often by other females than males. A macaque mother moves to the periphery of her troop to give birth in a secluded spot,[35] unless the group is moving, when the female must stay with it.

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