twelver shia

10-19-2020

Furthermore, there is a similarity between humans as the little world and the universe as the large world. The centuries following Husayn's death saw the gradual emergence of distinctive Shi˓ite communities, not only in southern Iraq, the site of the imam's martyrdom, but also in Lebanon, Syria, and parts of South Asia. [7][8][9], Shia Islam is the second largest branch of Islam: as of the late 2000s, Shia Muslims constituted 10–15% of all Muslims. Some Muslim scholars trace to his imamate the doctrine of taqiyya ("dissimulation"), which permits Shi˓as threatened with persecution to conceal their denominational identity as followers of the imams. [28] Al-Shaykh al-Saduq has recorded a tradition that the prophet told Ali: "There are three things that I swear to be true.

The declining power of the Safavid shahs was accompanied by the increasing importance in the public realm of the Usuli form of Shi˓ite jurisprudence.

[194][195], Praying or Duʼa in Shia has an important place as Muhammad described it as a weapon of the believer.

The Sunni Shahada states There is no god except God, Muhammad is the messenger of God, but to this the Shia append Ali is the Wali (custodian) of God, علي ولي الله. Yazid asked Husayn to swear allegiance (bay'ah) to him.

[100], Shias form a majority of the population in Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Iran, and Iraq,[102][103] as well as a plurality in Lebanon. "Imamat (leadership) is, in fact, the reins of the religion, the social system of the Muslims. [71][72] Shia Islam embodies a completely independent system of religious interpretation and political authority in the Muslim world. Usuli clerics insisted that the Shi˓ite laity must select a living mujtahid as a marja˓ altaqlid ("reference point for imitation"), a guide that one follows in legal, moral, and ritual issues. Al-Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya, founder of the Zaydi state in Yemen, is seen as the codifier of Zaydi fiqh and as such most Zaydis today are known as Hadawis.

[47] Although Imam has a political role, his Imamah does not depend on this role.

The Sunnis tend to combine only under certain circumstances. Encyclopedia.com. Those scholars whose studies qualified them to exercise ijtihad were known as mujtahids. As the 12th Imam is in occultation, it is the duty of clerics to refer to the Islamic literature such as the Quran and hadith and identify legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law to provide means to deal with current issues from an Islamic perspective. وَجَعَلْناهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنا وَأَوْحَيْنا إِلَيْهِمْ فِعْلَ الْخَيْراتِ وَإِقامَ الصَّلاةِ وَإِيتاءَ الزَّكاةِ وَكانُوا لَنا عابِدِينَ فَلَمْ تَزَلْ فِي ذُرِّيَّتِهِ يَرِثُهَا بَعْضٌ عَنْ بَعْضٍ قَرْناً فَقَرْناً حَتَّى وَرَّثَهَا الله تَعَالَى النَّبِيَّ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فَقَالَ جَلَّ وَتَعَالَى إِنَّ أَوْلَى النَّاسِ بِإِبْراهِيمَ لَلَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُ وَهذَا النَّبِيُّ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَالله وَلِيُّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَكَانَتْ لَهُ خَاصَّةً فَقَلَّدَهَا (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) عَلِيّاً (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) بِأَمْرِ الله تَعَالَى عَلَى رَسْمِ مَا فَرَضَ الله فَصَارَتْ فِي ذُرِّيَّتِهِ الاصْفِيَاءِ الَّذِينَ آتَاهُمُ الله الْعِلْمَ وَالايمَانَ بِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى وَقالَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ وَالايمانَ لَقَدْ لَبِثْتُمْ فِي كِتابِ الله إِلى يَوْمِ الْبَعْثِ فَهِيَ فِي وُلْدِ علي (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) خَاصَّةً إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ إِذْ لا نَبِيَّ بَعْدَ مُحَمَّدٍ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فَمِنْ أَيْنَ يَخْتَارُ هَؤُلاءِ الْجُهَّالُ إِنَّ الامَامَةَ هِيَ مَنْزِلَةُ الانْبِيَاءِ وَإِرْثُ الاوْصِيَاءِ إِنَّ الامَامَةَ خِلافَةُ الله وَخِلافَةُ الرَّسُولِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَمَقَامُ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) وَمِيرَاثُ الْحَسَنِ وَالْحُسَيْنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِنَّ الامَامَةَ زِمَامُ الدِّينِ وَنِظَامُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَصَلاحُ الدُّنْيَا وَعِزُّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِنَّ الامَامَةَ أُسُّ الاسْلامِ النَّامِي وَفَرْعُهُ السَّامِي بِالامَامِ تَمَامُ الصَّلاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ وَالصِّيَامِ وَالْحَجِّ وَالْجِهَادِ وَتَوْفِيرُ الْفَيْءِ وَالصَّدَقَاتِ وَإِمْضَاءُ الْحُدُودِ وَالاحْكَامِ وَمَنْعُ الثُّغُورِ وَالاطْرَافِ الامَامُ يُحِلُّ حَلالَ الله وَيُحَرِّمُ حَرَامَ الله وَيُقِيمُ حُدُودَ الله وَيَذُبُّ عَنْ دِينِ الله وَيَدْعُو إِلَى سَبِيلِ رَبِّهِ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ وَالْحُجَّةِ الْبَالِغَةِ الامَامُ كَالشَّمْسِ الطَّالِعَةِ الْمُجَلِّلَةِ بِنُورِهَا لِلْعَالَمِ وَهِيَ فِي الافُقِ بِحَيْثُ لا تَنَالُهَا الايْدِي وَالابْصَارُ الامَامُ الْبَدْرُ الْمُنِيرُ وَالسِّرَاجُ الزَّاهِرُ وَالنُّورُ السَّاطِعُ وَالنَّجْمُ الْهَادِي فِي غَيَاهِبِ الدُّجَى وَأَجْوَازِ الْبُلْدَانِ وَالْقِفَارِ وَلُجَجِ الْبِحَارِ الامَامُ الْمَاءُ الْعَذْبُ عَلَى الظَّمَإِ وَالدَّالُّ عَلَى الْهُدَى وَالْمُنْجِي مِنَ الرَّدَى الامَامُ النَّارُ عَلَى الْيَفَاعِ الْحَارُّ لِمَنِ اصْطَلَى بِهِ وَالدَّلِيلُ فِي الْمَهَالِكِ مَنْ فَارَقَهُ فَهَالِكٌ الامَامُ السَّحَابُ الْمَاطِرُ وَالْغَيْثُ الْهَاطِلُ وَالشَّمْسُ الْمُضِيئَةُ وَالسَّمَاءُ الظَّلِيلَةُ وَالارْضُ الْبَسِيطَةُ وَالْعَيْنُ الْغَزِيرَةُ وَالْغَدِيرُ وَالرَّوْضَةُ الامَامُ الانِيسُ الرَّفِيقُ وَالْوَالِدُ الشَّفِيقُ وَالاخُ الشَّقِيقُ وَالامُّ الْبَرَّةُ بِالْوَلَدِ الصَّغِيرِ وَمَفْزَعُ الْعِبَادِ فِي الدَّاهِيَةِ النَآدِ الامَامُ أَمِينُ الله فِي خَلْقِهِ وَحُجَّتُهُ عَلَى عِبَادِهِ وَخَلِيفَتُهُ فِي بِلادِهِ وَالدَّاعِي إِلَى الله وَالذَّابُّ عَنْ حُرَمِ الله الامَامُ الْمُطَهَّرُ مِنَ الذُّنُوبِ وَالْمُبَرَّأُ عَنِ الْعُيُوبِ الْمَخْصُوصُ بِالْعِلْمِ الْمَوْسُومُ بِالْحِلْمِ نِظَامُ الدِّينِ وَعِزُّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَغَيْظُ الْمُنَافِقِينَ وَبَوَارُ الْكَافِرِينَ.

They are the political and religious guardians over the community. The labels Allamah and Ayatollah are in use for Twelver clerics. [47], Upon the death of Ali, his elder son Hasan became leader of the Muslims of Kufa, and after a series of skirmishes between the Kufa Muslims and the army of Muawiyah, Hasan agreed to cede the caliphate to Muawiyah and maintain peace among Muslims upon certain conditions:[48][49], Hasan then retired to Medina, where in 670 CE he was poisoned by his wife Ja'da bint al-Ash'ath ibn Qays, after being secretly contacted by Muawiyah who wished to pass the caliphate to his own son Yazid and saw Hasan as an obstacle. [70] According to some Hadiths, Imams possess several special books including Al-Jafr (The Divination), Al-Sahifa (The Book), Al-Jamia (The Compilation), Book of Fatimah and a codex of Quran and its commentary (Mus'haf of Ali) written by Ali.

[2] A person observing Shia Islam is called a Shi'i. [104], Shia Muslims constitute 27-35% of the population in Lebanon, and as per some estimates from 35%[102][105] to over 35–40% of the population in Yemen,[106] 30%–35% of the citizen population in Kuwait (no figures exist for the non-citizen population),[107][108] over 20% in Turkey,[100][109] 5–20% of the population in Pakistan,[110][100] and 10–19% of Afghanistan's population. [37] According to Motahhari, Walayah has four dimensions: the right of love, loving the Ahl al-Bayt is obligatory for all Muslims, the authority of Alh al-Bayt in spiritual guidance, the authority of Ahl al-Bayt in socio-political guidance and the authority of the universal nature by the grace of Allah.

The settlement of the caliphate in Istanbul from the sixteenth century sharpened Sunni-Shi˓a tensions as a religious expression of international political rivalries. For other uses, see, Doctrine about necessity of acquiring knowledge, Esposito, John. Nevertheless he is alive and will return to earth one day as the Mahdi, "the rightly guided by God," when he will purge the earth of all the injustice that has stained it since the time when ˓Ali, Husayn, and the other members of ahl albayt were first denied the political recognition to which they were entitled. [106] Hadith of Two Weighty Things reflects the proximity of the Imams to the Quran.

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